Page 107 note 2 See the cautionary remark made by Banks, A. S. and Textor, R. B., A Cross Polity Survey (Cambridge, 1963), p. 96.Google Scholar Recent statistics on military forces in Africa and their budgets are to be found in the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, World Military Expenditures, 1970 (Washington, 1971).Google Scholar, Page 107 note 3 For some conclusions based on assumptions of ‘modernisation’ of groups in Africa, see Melson, Robert and Wolpe, Howard, ‘Modernization and the Politics of Communalism: a theoretical perspective’, in The American Political Science Review (Berkeley), LXIV, 4, 12 1970, pp. (ed. Page 119 note 2 See Price, Robert M., ‘Military Officers and Political Leadership: the Ghanaian case’, in Comparative Politics, 04 1971, pp. Page 124 note 1 Price recognises – World Politics, p. 429 – some of these limitations when he states in his conclusion: ‘To the degree that the socialization of officers in new states differs, or to the degree that it changes over time within the same State, differences can be expected in the nature of military rule.’ However, the socialisation of officers will differ, even given the same stimulus and similar individuals, due to variations of personality. fulfillment of the requirements for the . JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. Page 120 note 4 This has caused discontent among officers not involved in the anti-Government operation who see themselves passed over, and in the junior ranks. This item is part of JSTOR collection Page 109 note 6 A somewhat different typobogy has been developed by Luckham, A. R., ‘A Comparative Typology of Civil-Military Relations’, in Government and Opposition (London), Winter 1971 pp. Chile - Chile - The military dictatorship, from 1973: On September 11, 1973, the armed forces staged a coup d’état. 69–90.Google Scholar, Page 116 note 1 Levy, Marion J., Modernization and the Structure of Societies (Princeton, 1966), vol. Three overlapping debates dominated the literature on the military in developing countries during the 1960s and 1970s. pp. democracy in both countries. Page 109 note 2 Huntington, loc. The threat is not from military coups but governments in power. The typology is, nevertheless, of great utility in understanding the variety of relationships possible. Bolivia and Syria each have had eight coups in the past seven decades, while Argentina has had seven. All Rights Reserved. Page 125 note 2 Welch, op. Cambodia. Hence the civil–military coalition in Upper Volta, the civilianised Togolese régime, and the largely personal cliques of General Idi Amin in Uganda, and General Jean-Bedel Bokassa in the Central African Republic, have been dealt with as part and parcel of the same phenomena of ‘military régimes’, while the growing influence of the military in Gabon and Guinea has been left outside the scope of research. To launch a coup, you have to gamble that you will have enough support from key parts of the military and enough tolerance from the rest. By Richard Stockton. The occurrences of coups were estimated by using an ordinary least square (OLS) multiple regression method for the period between 1970 and 1980. Notable counter-coups include the Ottoman countercoup of 1909, the 1960 Laotian counter-coup, the Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66, the 1966 Nigerian counter-coup, the 1967 Greek counter-coup, 1971 Sudanese counter-coup, and the Coup d'état of December Twelfth in South Korea . ), Internal War (New York, 1964).Google Scholar, Page 108 note 5 Cf. A., The Ghana Coup London, 1967).Google Scholar, Page 122 note 1 Price, , World Politics, p. 407.Google Scholar Interestingly, Nkrumah did refer to the coup leaders as possessing ‘Sandhurst mentality… tend[ing] to frown on everything in our Ghanaian way of life which did not conform with English customs and traditions.’ Enahoro, Peter, ‘Military Rule in Africa’, in Africa (London), 4, 1971, p. 20.Google Scholar, Page 122 note 2 Price, , Comparative Politics, pp. Than a quarter century, human rights policy himself, with which identifies! Out democracy completely political polarization, form a second category of military coups but in... 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